A theory for cavitation in impellers by C. J. Garrison

Cover of: A theory for cavitation in impellers | C. J. Garrison

Published by Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, Calif .

Written in English

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Subjects:

  • Impellers,
  • Mathematical models,
  • Pumping machinery,
  • Cavitation

About the Edition

An approximate theory for cavitation in pump impellers is developed on the basis of a one-dimensional potential flow model. The theory incorporates the unsteady term occurring in Bernoulli"s equation and accounts for blockage effects due to vane thickness. A comparison of the theoretical results with experimental data from mixed flow impeller tests shows good agreement near the condition of zero incidence. On the basis of the theoretical results a mechanism of cavitation breakdown is proposed. (Author)

Edition Notes

Book details

Statementby C. J. Garrison
ContributionsNaval Postgraduate School (U.S.)
The Physical Object
Pagination30 p. :
Number of Pages30
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL25477378M
OCLC/WorldCa422987909

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NPS69Gm IIBRAHY TECHNICALRRTSZCTIO*. T£SCHOC MOW;;-«•***'' N Monterey,California ATHEORYFORCAVITATIONINIMPELLERS By on A theory for cavitation in impellers book Author(s) subject terms: Cavitation, pump impellers, potential flow Includes bibliographical references (p.

28) Technical report; An approximate theory for cavitation in pump impellers is developed on the basis of a one-dimensional potential flow model. Abstract. An approximate theory for cavitation in pump impellers is developed on the basis of a one-dimensional potential flow model.

The theory incorporates the unsteady term occurring in Bernoulli's equation and accounts for blockage effects due to vane : C. (Clarence Jimmy) Garrison. An Internet Book on Fluid Dynamics Types of Impeller Cavitation Since cavitation in a pump impeller can take a variety of forms (see, for example, Wood ), it is Figure 1: Types of cavitation in pumps.

appropriate at this stage to attempt some description and classification of these types of cavitation. The collapse of a cavitation bubble close to a solid boundary in a quiescent liquid. The theoretical shapes of Plesset and Chapman (solid lines) are compared with the experimental observations of.

A theory is presented for optimizing the geometric parameters to give the best cavitation performance or alternatively to assess the influences of working away from the design. From this, a theoretical method based on cascade data transformed into the radial plane is used for detail design for given cavitation inception conditions.

Cavitation occurring in high-energy pump impellers often results in material erosion and system instabilities. Excessive erosion rates compromise life and increase ownership costs through higher maintenance and reduced availability.

Cavitation zones within the inter-blades flow fields constantly increased in size with both the increase in impeller blades number and rotational speed, with a thorough A theory for cavitation in impellers book pump head drop, leading to an almost complete inter-blades flow blockage at higher values.

The flow is modeled as an incompressible, inviscid, fully-guided liquid except on the suction sides of the blades, where attached cavitation occurs in a small layer of given acoustic admittance. The cavitation behavior and suction performance of a pump are largely influenced by the geometry at the impeller eye.

A preliminary design theory for polyphase impellers in unbounded flow. Related Titles. Series: DTNSRDC ; 82/ By. Yim, Bohyun David W. Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Type. Book Material. Published material. The lectures are based on my book entitled “Hydrodynamics of Pumps” Gongwer, C. A theory of cavitation flow in centrifugal-pump impellers.

Trans. ASME, 63, 29– Google Scholar. Greitzer, E.M. Impeller cavitation damage on a pump operating below its rated discharge. Proc. of Conf. on Cavitation, Inst. of Mech. Eng. victims are impellers and propellers. Cavitation was first explained in by the English physicist, Lord Rayleigh, as he was studying a mysterious metal erosion on ship propellers.

Although its effects upon the surfaces of an impeller have been witnessed. Measures preventing cavitation in pumps; the main way to prevent cavitation in pumps is to increase the pressure at the inlet to the impeller. Impellers with an extended inlet; if the open flow area of the impeller at the inlet increases at a constant flow rate, then the flow velocity will decrease and the pressure will increase.

Gulich summarized suction capability and cavitation for pumps in his technical book, where cavitation in impeller or diffuser, determination of the required NPSH, influence of the fluid properties, cavitation- induced noise, vibration and erosion, etc. are descri- bed and explained. cavitation depending on the geometry of the impeller.

At a simi-lar cavitation number for alternate blade cavitation, forward and backward rotating cavitations with the number of cells 1, 2 and 3 are found, as well as higher order rotating cavitation modes.

Comparisons with experiments are made for two types of rotat-ing cavitation. INTRODUCTION. The book comprises thirteen chapters covering: theory of centrifugal pump impeller, design of mixed flow impellers, pump casing, hydraulic performance, leakage-disk friction and mechanical losses, water hammer, special operating conditions, and its applications.

The book also describes cavitation in pumps, and how unacceptable cavitation can be Reviews: 1. Cavitation is a phenomenon in which rapid changes of pressure in a liquid lead to the formation of small vapor-filled cavities in places where the pressure is relatively low.

When subjected to higher pressure, these cavities, called "bubbles" or "voids", collapse and can generate a shock wave that is strong very close to the bubble, but rapidly weakens as it propagates away from the bubble.

Pump total head begins to drop only during advanced cavitation, especially at partial flow operation. When the impeller is designed with a large inlet angle to improve suction performance, there is a possibility of increasing the capacity where inlet reverse flow.

This book is intended as a combination of a reference book for those who work with cavitation or bubble dynamics and as a monograph for advanced students interested in some of the basic problems associated with this category of multiphase flows. A book like this has many roots.

It began many years ago when, as a young postdoctoral fellow at the. Since bubble cavitation normally occurs first in the midchord region of the blade, it tends to occur in nonseparated flows. This type of cavitation, as its name implies, appears as individual bubbles growing, sometimes quite large in character, and contracting rapidly.

Cavitation – an Introduction. Cavitation is the formation of vapour cavities in a liquid, small liquid-free zones ((“ bubbles” or “voids”), that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid.

It usually occurs when a liquid is subjected to rapid changes of pressure that cause the formation of cavities in the liquid where the pressure is relatively low. —INDEX— Introduction page 1 ChapterI,RelationBetweenPeripheralVelocity andHead 2 ChapterII,Design.

Part 2Part 2 – Cavitation prediction (cont)Cavitation prediction (cont.) • Results and theory thus far do not require two-phase flow calltilculations. • Still it ppp p grovides important information of an impeller design regarding cavitation performance.

• Cavitation occurs when the Available Suction Head is less than Required for a specific pump. When Suction Pressure is too low, fluid vaporizes. The created bubbles collapse as they encounter increased pressure while exiting the impeller, resulting in Cavitation.

Abstract. The linearized dynamics of the flow in cavitating axial helical inducers and centrifugal turbopomp impellers is investigated with the purpose of illustrating the impact of the dynamic response of cavitation on the rotordynamic forces exerted by the fluid on the rotors of whirling turbopumps.

impeller will encounter an ever-increasing flow area as it passes through the diffuser. This increase in flow area causes a reduction in flow velocity, converting kinetic energy into flow pressure. Impeller Classification. Impellers of pumps are classified. Figure 4 Single-Suction and Double-Suction Impellers.

based on the number of points that. Aiming at the cavitation problem, the blade leading edge shape has been changed to analyze its impact on the cavitation performance for centrifugal pumps. And the response model has been established based on the Radial Basis Function.

The calculation case results show that the leading edge extending forward along the shroud can improve the inlet flow condition and cavitation performance. 3 Cavitation Introduction Vapor pressure Cavitation Introduction The Laws The Affinity Laws and the impeller diameter What’s the practical application of these laws.

5 Useful Work and Pump Efficiency Useful work from a pump Flow determination trying desperately to relate the theory learned at the University with the reality of the.

A relatively new impeller that has suffered from cavitation typically looks like it has been in use for many years; the impeller material may be eroded and it can be damaged beyond repair.

Vibration is a common symptom of cavitation, and many times the first sign of an issue. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website.

If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. We will discuss the key causes of pump impeller cavitation, and the best ways to prevent it. Pump Impeller Cavitation In Depth. Pump impeller cavitation is the formation and subsequent collapse or implosion of vapor bubbles in a pump.

It occurs when gas bubbles forn in the pump due to drop in absolute pressure of the liquid below vapor pressure. The linear stability analysis of cavitation in flat plate cascades corresponding to 2, 3, 4, and 5-bladed impeller was carried out to clarify the effect of the blade count on cavitation instabilities.

Each blade is treated independently so that all possible modes in those impellers can be found. little inferior, but the critical cavitation number is better for impeller R3.

For impeller R4, whose blade inlet angle at mid-span is larger compared with impeller R1, both cavitation performance and hydraulic performance are hardly changed.

Figure 3. Cavitation performances for different impellers at. Etched micrographs x of samples taken from the impellers showed clean, pockmarked, severely eroded surfaces, characteristic of cavitation damage.

Investigation also revealed that considerable quantities of air were being drawn into the system when water. Theory bites are a collection of basic hydraulic theory and will touch upon pump design and other areas of pump industry knowledge. Inducers are used in the event of the danger of cavitation.

They increase the pressure in the inlet area of the impeller. The liquid gets stuck in a pattern of high-speed flow between the impeller and the housing, creating a vacuum effect that forms bubbles near the housing wall.

The vapor bubbles collapse, causing impact damage that can wear away at the impeller until the shaft breaks. Warning signs. The sound of pump cavitation in a centrifugal pump is unmistakable. Cavitation refers to the formation of vapor cavities inside the liquid being pumped, resulting in a lower density mixture of liquid and gas.

This mixing of phases lowers pumping efficiency, compromising the pump's ability to pump the liquid and inviting further complications. Cavitation erosion is one of the most popular phenomena of the destruction of engineering materials working in water conditions and various kinds of liquids.

The cavitation effect is defined as a physical effect, induced by a variable field of liquid pressures, where bubbles or other voids (caverns) - containing steams of a given liquid, gas, or a steam-gas mixture - are formed, expanded.

This book is intended as a combination of a reference book for those who work with cavitation or bubble dynamics and as a monograph for advanced students interested in some of the basic problems associated with this category of multi-phase flows.

A book like this has many roots. It. Supercavitation is the use of a cavitation bubble to reduce skin friction drag on a submerged object and enable high speeds. Applications include torpedoes and propellers, but in theory, the technique could be extended to an entire underwater vessel.

Design Optimization of the Impeller and Volute of a Centrifugal Pump to Improve the Hydraulic Performance and Flow Stability Cavitation and Flow Instability of a Centrifugal Pump,” Ph.D.

thesis, Inha University, Incheon, South Korea. Aircraft Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Using Design of Experiments Theory and Response Surface.The basic theory of operation of a centrifugal pump can be developed by considering the average one-dimensional flow of the fluid as it passes between the inlet and the outlet sections of the impeller as the blades rotate.

Velocity diagrams at the inlet and exit of a centrifugal pump impeller.

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